- Smoking: Even intermittent smoking smoking affects sperm production and function. Smokers can have normal semen analyses yet have severe defects in important sperm functions that are critical to fertilization.
- Varicoceles: These dilated, varicoce veins are common in all men, but much more common in men with fertility problems. They can fixed.
- Infections: prostate infections, diverticulitis, epididymitis, or bladder infections can transiently impair sperm production and function.
- Malignancy: Cancer itself can cause infertility. Cancer treatments can also cause male infertility
- Enironmental toxicants: Second hand smoke, soil fertilizers, dry cleaning waste, plastic bottle chemical products, publishing dyes can all lower sperm counts or impair sperm function.
These factors can all be found on a thorough clinical history and physical examination.