Finding sperm in a testis can be challenging. Several strategies exist, some more invasive (microTESE) and some less invasive (the TFNA mapping). I have adopted the TFNA mapping protocol because it is well tolerated and with very little risk of testis damage, it is also effective in locating pockets of sperm production within the testis, like findings apples on a branch. TFNA mapping provides a detailed "map" to tell me where to go to find the sperm when I do the actual sperm retrieval--the TESE.
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